Relative sweetness

By , February 15, 2013 8:53 am

The primary reason that fructose is used commercially in foods and beverages, besides its low cost, is its high relative sweetness. It is the sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates. Fructose is generally regarded as being 1.73 times as sweet as sucrose. However, it is the 5-ring form of fructose that is sweeter; the 6-ring form tastes about the same as usual table sugar. Warming fructose leads to formation of the 6-ring form.

The sweetness of fructose is perceived earlier than that of sucrose or dextrose, and the taste sensation reaches a peak (higher than that of sucrose) and diminishes more quickly than that of sucrose. Fructose can also enhance other flavors in the system.

The principal of addiction
swift peaks and troughs are the principals of any addiction

 

Eating Fruit in the Community is usually a natural way to self limit the amount of Fructose we consume

Fruits – dried or fresh – are a rich source of soluble fibre; this is material that is not absorbed by the intestines and instead remains within the bowel contents where it binds water; this increases the faecal water content and hence bulk. This promotes intestinal motility and the softer consistency makes the resulting stools easier to pass.

Dried fruits tend to be even more effective at provoking this result because – by virtue of being dried – they are less filling than their fully hydrated fresh counterparts and hence we tend to eat more of them in a portion; this means that the dose of soluble fibre, which is unaffected by the drying process, is higher and hence the aperient effect is more, shall we say, apparent!

 

Dietary guidelines for the management of fructose avoidance / minimization

Researchers at Monash University in Australia developed dietary guidelines for managing fructose malabsorption.

Unfavorable foods (i.e. more fructose than glucose)

  • Fruit — apple, pear, guava, honeydew melon, nashi fruit, pawpaw, papaya, quince, star fruit, watermelon;
  • Dried fruit — apple, currant, date, fig, pear, raisin, sultana;
  • Fortified wines
  • Foods containing added sugars, such as agave nectar, some corn syrups, and fruit juice concentrates.

Favorable foods (i.e. fructose equal to or less than glucose)

The following list of favorable foods was cited in the paper:  The fructose and glucose contents of foods listed on the Australian food standards website would appear to indicate that most of the listed foods have higher fructose levels.

  • Stone fruit: apricot, nectarine, peach, plum (caution — these fruits contain sorbitol);
  • Berry fruit: blueberry, blackberry, boysenberry, cranberry, raspberry, strawberry, loganberry;
  • Citrus fruit: kumquat, grapefruit, lemon, lime, mandarin, orange, tangelo;
  • Other fruits: ripe banana, jackfruit, kiwi fruit, passion fruit, pineapple, rhubarb, tamarillo.

 

 

Weight Loss and NPY Protein

By , February 7, 2013 9:03 am

SCIENTISTS have pinpointed exactly why obese people don’t lose much weight when they diet.

‘s Researchers at Sydney’s Garvan Institute of Medical Research have found that a chemical known as the Neuropeptide (NPY), which stimulates appetite, plays a major role in controlling whether the body burns or conserves energy.

The study, published in the journal Cell Metabolism, shows that when the body takes in less energy or is on a diet, high levels of NPY signal to the body that it’s in starvation mode, and the body subsequently starts storing as much energy as possible.

“Evolution provided us with these mechanisms to help us survive famine,” co-author Professor Herbert Herzog said.

“But now we’re eating more than we should because food is always available, so in many cases additional energy is stored as fat,” he said.

“When you try to lose the extra weight, NPY will trigger and it defeats the purpose of quickly lowering your calorie intake.”

Professor Herzog said with obesity being a major epidemic in the community, researchers have found it challenging to find ways of tricking the body into losing weight because of NPY.

“Now that we have identified the exact brain circuitry, drugs can be developed to target and control these types of neurons,” he said.

Professor Herzog said it was important to note that the study showed that fad diets simply did not work.

“Weight loss needs to be done over a long period of time and that’s what people underestimate,” he said.

Dr Thomas Challenger Challenger Mission